hugo hindu seeds

Hindu Kush , also known as "Hindi Kush," is a pure indica marijuana strain named after the mountain range stretching 500 miles between Pakistan and Afghanistan where it originated. The harsh climate of its homeland has conditioned this strain to express a thick, protective coat of crystal trichomes cherished by hash makers worldwide. With a subtle sweet and earthy sandalwood aroma, Hindu Kush induces a deep sense of calm that helps bring relief to those suffering pain, nausea, and stress disorders.

Hindu Kush , also known as "Hindi Kush," is a pure indica marijuana strain named after the mountain range stretching 500 miles between Pakistan and Afghanistan where it originated. The harsh climate of its homeland has conditioned this strain to express a thick, protective coat of crystal trichomes cherished by hash makers worldwide. With a subtle sweet and earthy sandalwood aroma, Hindu Kush induces a deep sense of calm that helps bring relief to those suffering pain, nausea, and stress disorders.

Hog's Breath potency is higher THC than average.

Hog’s Breath , also known as “Hawgsbreath” and “Hog Breath” is an indica marijuana strain and the winner of the 2002 Cannabis Cup for best indica, Hog’s breath was bred from Hindu Kush and Afghani. Its dense buds are light and dark green with orange hairs and a healthy amount of crystals. The taste of Hog’s Breath has been described as cheddar and provides a overall tingly mind and body high.

Hog’s Breath , also known as “Hawgsbreath” and “Hog Breath” is an indica marijuana strain and the winner of the 2002 Cannabis Cup for best indica, Hog’s breath was bred from Hindu Kush and Afghani. Its dense buds are light and dark green with orange hairs and a healthy amount of crystals. The taste of Hog’s Breath has been described as cheddar and provides a overall tingly mind and body high.

Line drawing adapted from Anderson (1980), courtesy of the Harvard University Herbaria and Botany Libraries.

Approximately 1,100 herbarium specimens were examined, at 15 herbaria, designated by herbarium acronyms in Index Herbariorum (Suppl. material 1: SF.4). Additionally, we extracted morphological data from CGEs that compared Central and South Asian germplasm collected in the previous century (e.g., Vavilov and Bukinich 1929, Small et al. 1976, Anderson 1980, de Meijer 1994, Hillig 2005b). We also drew on morphological data from archaeobotanical studies. In the spirit of open access, extracted morphological data are provided in Suppl. material 1: SF.8, permitting readers to synthesize the raw data for themselves. CGE studies provided data often absent in herbarium specimens, such as plant height, internode length, stalk thickness, and branch angle or divarication.

Domesticated Cannabis easily escapes cultivation and goes “feral.” Domesticated C. sativa reverted to a wild-type phenotype in Canada just 50 generations (years) after cultivation was prohibited (Small 1975). This rapid phenotypic evolution makes it difficult to distinguish truly wild plants from formerly cultivated plants that have reverted to wild-type phenotypes. Thus Cannabis plants growing outside of cultivation could be (1) “volunteers” (escaped very recently from cultivation, maintaining their domesticated characteristics, and growing near where they were cultivated); (2) “escapes” that have readapted to wild existence (growing in various habitats, typically in disturbed or weedy places); or (3) “aboriginal” (unaltered by domestication and growing in their indigenous areas).

Methods.

In past centuries, landraces of South Asian heritage were grown over a much wider geographical range around the world than Central Asian landraces. The latter did not come to the attention of western Cannabis breeders until the early 1970s. Since then, breeders have haphazardly hybridized Central Asian and South Asian landraces, and largely obliterated their phenotypic differences (Clarke and Merlin 2013; Small 2017). Already 35 years ago, unhybridized landraces had become difficult to obtain in the USA and Europe (Clarke 1987). Hybrids of “Sativa” and “Indica” have proved overwhelmingly popular. “Indica” genes are useful for increasing cannabinoid yields, accelerating the maturity of outdoor plants at high latitudes, and reducing the height of plants so they are more easily concealed outdoors and more easily grown indoors. In the burgeoning CBD market, “Indica” genes (often from plants mislabeled “Ruderalis”) have increased the proportion of CBD relative to THC in plant products.

The density of capitate-stalked glandular trichomes (CSGTs) was qualitatively assessed (i.e. visually evaluated) on perigonal bracts. CSGT density was mentioned by Christison (1850) in one of the first CGEs that compared C. sativa (Scottish hemp) and C. indica (Indian gunjuh ). He noted that C. indica inflorescences felt resinous when touched, “Floral leaves, bracts, and perianth covered with glandular pubescence.” He also noted that C. indica leaves produced “both sessile glands and glandular hairs [CSGTs].” CSGT density on sugar leaves was also qualitatively assessed, based on the method by Potter (2009).

Representative achenes of four varieties A indica , Rajshahi (Bangladesh), Clarke 1877 (BM) B indica , Coimbatore (India), Bircher 1893 (K) C indica , South Africa, Hillig 1996; (IND) D himalayensis neotype E himalayensis , Bareilly (India), Roxburgh 1796 (K). F himalayensis , East Bengal (Bangladesh) Griffith 1835 (GH) G afghanica neotype H afghanica epitype I afghanica Yarkant (Xīnjiāng), Henderson 1871 (LE) J asperrima lectotype K asperrima Nuristān (Afghanistan), Street 1965 (F) L Kailiyskiy Alatau (Kazakhstan), Semenov-Tyan-Shansky 1857 (LE).

Two kinds of drug-type Cannabis gained layman’s terms in the 1980s. “Sativa” had origins in South Asia (India), with early historical dissemination to Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Americas. “Indica” had origins in Central Asia (Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkestan). We have assigned unambiguous taxonomic names to these varieties, after examining morphological characters in 1100 herbarium specimens, and analyzing phytochemical and genetic data from the literature in a meta-analysis. “Sativa” and “Indica” are recognized as C. sativa subsp. indica var. indica and C. sativa subsp. indica var. afghanica , respectively. Their wild-growing relatives are C. sativa subsp. indica var. himalayensis (in South Asia), and C. sativa subsp. indica var. asperrima (in Central Asia). Natural selection initiated divergence, driven by climatic conditions in South and Central Asia. Subsequent domestication drove further phytochemical divergence. South and Central Asian domesticates can be distinguished by tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol content (THC/CBD ratios, ≥7 or <7, respectively), terpenoid profiles (absence or presence of sesquiterpene alcohols), and a suite of morphological characters. The two domesticates have undergone widespread introgressive hybridization in the past 50 years. This has obliterated differences between hybridized “Sativa” and “Indica” currently available. “Strains” alleged to represent “Sativa” and “Indica” are usually based on THC/CBD ratios of plants with undocumented hybrid backgrounds (with so-called “Indicas” often delimited simply on possession of more CBD than “Sativas”). The classification presented here circumscribes and names four taxa of Cannabis that represent critically endangered reservoirs of germplasm from which modern cannabinoid strains originated, and which are in urgent need of conservation.

Clarke (1981) accepted Anderson’s “Indica” concept for plants from Central Asia, “Strains from this area are often used as type examples for Cannabis indica .” In addition to morphological differences, he noted a phytochemical trait – Central Asian plants uniquely produced an acrid, skunk-like aroma. Clarke (1987) added an organoleptic quality – plants from Afghanistan produced a “slow flat dreary high.” Hillig (2005a) referred to Central Asian landraces as wide-leaflet diameter (WLD) biotypes, and landraces of South Asian heritage as narrow-leaflet diameter (NLD) biotypes. WLD and NLD biotypes differed in genetics (Hillig (2005a), morphology (Hillig 2005b), THC-to-cannabidiol (CBD) ratios (Hillig and Mahlberg 2004), and terpenoid content (Hillig 2004).

The perigonal bract (also called bracteole, perigonium, or inappropriately “calyx”) is the floral bract enclosing the female flower and later the achene (Small 2015). Inflorescence density was qualitatively assessed using the “perigonal bract-to-leaf index” (i.e., the “calyx-to-leaf ratio,” Clarke 1981). Inflorescences with a low index have a predominance of leaf material – interstitial “sugar leaves” (relatively small leaves with few leaflets occurring in the inflorescence) between clusters, subtending 2 nd order to 7 th order branchlets (Spitzer-Rimon et al. 2019). A low index is associated, in part, with short internode length and broad leaflet width.

Genetic characters.

Branch angle or divarication measured the angle, in degrees, that a branch came off the vertical shoot; it generally ranged between 35° to 85° from vertical. Branch angle may be a function of internode length, which was also assessed. Branch flexibility is a qualitative measure of the ability of a branch to bend or droop without snapping. Flexibility likely reflects the ratio of bast fiber (flexible) to wood fiber (inflexible). Leaf morphology was assessed in “fan leaves” (i.e. larger palmately compound leaves) near the base of inflorescences. The sampled leaves conformed to the concept of 1 st order branching off the main shoot, as presented by Spitzer-Rimon et al. (2019). Central leaflet length/width ratio (L/W) is expressed as a quotient. Leaflet shape was either lanceolate (the widest part is less than midway down the length of the leaflet from its base), or oblanceolate (where the widest location is more than half way down the length). This was measured as the distance to the widest point (WP) divided by the entire length (WP/L). A leaflet with WP/L > 0.5 is oblanceolate (Anderson 1980).

We classified C. sativa subsp. indica into four varieties (in the formal nomenclatural sense, i.e., varietas). Two varieties express traits of domestication (identical to “Indica” and “Sativa” in the original narrow meanings of these terms), and two varieties have wild-type traits. We followed precedent set by Small and Cronquist (1976) who segregated C. sativa subsp. indica into two varieties – domesticated and wild-type plants. They did not place these varieties in an ancestor–progeny relationship, however, because they could not verify putative ancestral relationships.

A widely-cited paper by Turner et al. (1980) listed 420 phytochemicals isolated from C. sativa – the 420 plant. Few phytochemicals provide useful taxonomic information, however. Our study focused on cannabinoids and terpenoids. In living plants and freshly harvested tissues, cannabinoids exist predominantly in the form of carboxylic acids. THC occurs as tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA); cannabidiol (CBD) occurs as cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). Decarboxylation of the cannabinoids into their neutral counterparts occurs relatively slowly with aging, and rapidly with heat. Thus THCA converts to THC, and CBDA converts to CBD. In addition, when THC ages (unless appropriately stored) it substantially transforms to cannabinol (CBN), an oxidation product. In this paper when THC and CBD are mentioned it should be understood that depending on context, “THC” may mean THCA + THC + CBN, and “CBD” may mean CBDA + CBD.

The above information has dealt basically with domesticated material. In addition, “wild” plants are also of concern. Cannabis “wild-type” traits were first described by Zinger (1898): small achene size, a persistent perianth with camouflagic mottling, and an elongated base – drawn out in the shape of a short, tapered stub with a well-developed abscission layer. In contrast, domesticated plants express a suite of phenotypic traits (the “domestication syndrome”) absent in wild-type plants, such as enlarged seed size, a lack of seed shattering (from reduction of the abscission zone), and reduction of perianth adherence.

Phytochemical characters.

For each herbarium specimen, a standardized form was used to record specimen label data (collector name, date, location, annotations) and morphological data. During the course of this study, morphological characters were added (e.g., branch angle, inflorescence density, CSGT density), necessitating return visits to some herbaria (BM, ECON, GH, IND, K). Morphological data were synthesized qualitatively (e.g., branch flexibility, leaf color, inflorescence density, CSGT density, perianth adherence), or quantitatively (e.g., plant height, internode length, leaflet L/W and WP/L ratios, achene size). Quantitative data provided bracket measurements for each described taxon.

This study does not address the European subspecies, C. sativa subsp. sativa . Small and Cronquist (1976) segregated this subspecies into two varieties – domesticated and wild-type plants. The domesticated variety is composed of fiber-type and oilseed landraces and cultivars. The wild-type variety has nomenclatural issues regarding C. sativa var. spontanea Vavilov (1922) and C. ruderalis (Janischevsky 1924). Vavilov and Janischevsky assigned these separate taxa to the same population of wild-type plants growing near Saratov, Russia. “Ruderalis” has become a mainstay of today’s vernacular taxonomy (Anderson 1980). See Suppl. material 1: SF.2 for a discussion of these nomenclatural issues, and an elaboration of “wild-type nominalism” in SF.3b.

Molecular genetic studies of Central and South Asian populations – which have not been significantly hybridized in recent times – are limited in number. Twenty years ago, when unhybridized landraces were much more readily available, molecular methods were blunt instruments. Today, we can decode the DNA sequence of whole genomes, but a good representation of the range of unhybridized biodiversity is not available for analysis, although collection of genuinely representative germplasm from Asia may still be possible. Herbaria of course are invaluable repositories of older specimens, but collections from Asia are relatively limited, and for various reasons, curators have often been unable to allow sampling of older collections.

McPartland (2018) used DNA barcodes as a metric to place the Cannabis question of rank in context with other plants. He examined five plant barcodes ( rbcL , matK , trnH-psbA , trnL-trnF , and ITS1 ), and calculated a mean divergence (barcode gap) of 0.41% between C. sativa and C. indica . This nearly equaled the mean divergence of 0.43% between five pairs of plants considered different varieties or subspecies (e.g., Camellia sinensis var. sinensis and C. sinensis var. assamica ). In contrast, a 3.0% barcode gap separated five pairs of plants considered different species (e.g., Humulus lupulus and H. japonicus ). Hebert et al. (2004) proposed a 2.7% difference between two COI sequences (the “barcode gap”) as the threshold for flagging genetically divergent specimens as distinct animal species.

Recent authors have mistakenly equated the vernacular term “Sativa” with the epithet in the scientific name C. sativa , and mistakenly equated the vernacular term “Indica” with the epithet in the scientific name C. indica , mismatches first noted by McPartland et al. (2000). Small (2007) stated that “Sativa” and “Indica” were “quite inconsistent” with formal nomenclature. Linnaeus’s type specimen of C. sativa is a fiber-type (hemp) plant, not a drug-type (marijuana), and so the term “Sativa” has been inappropriately applied to drug-type plants (logically, it should be reserved for fiber-type hemp). Lamarck described C. indica for drug-type plants from India, and progenies in Southeast Asia and Africa – now counterintuitively called “Sativa” (logically, “Indica” should be reserved for the drug plants described by Lamarck).