What Are Cut Seed Beads?
Buying Cut Seed Beads.
What Can I Make With Cut Seed Beads?
As the name implies, cut seed beads are very similar to normal seed beads excerpt they are not as long as their original counterparts. They are short cylinders with a hole right in the middle and varied hole diameters. Therefore, artisans can choose what they find more appealing for their project and use them accordingly. These cut seeds are also some of the few glass seeds that are hand crafted. Craftsmen take their sweet time cutting the glass, melting it, molding it, sand bathing it, and finally polishing it to give the beads their signature smooth texture.
Among the various types of small beads, cut seed beads are possibly the most beautiful and the loveliest. The simple yet brilliant design of the beads along with the immense amount of colors is just a few of the reasons why artisans all around the world simply cannot get enough of these beads. These beads also come in various sizes as well as diameters to suit the needs of the customers.
Cut seed beads are possibly the most versatile beads that you can use in your projects thanks to their generic yet beautiful design. Do not let their somewhat lame look fool you, as they can make for great additions to your pendants, bracelets, figurines, and even make for great embroidery. The sizes for these beads range from 6/0 to 15/0.
We have a massive collection of cut seed beads that are simply breathtaking. Our variety includes various sizes, diameter holes, and even colors to ensure you find exactly what you are looking for. Some of the colors include aquamarine old silver matte, dark blue opaque, gold metallic, jet black, white opaque, turquoise green, and turquoise green Picasso among various others.
Studies were conducted in 1985 and 1986 to determine the relationship between seed tuber size and cut seed size as they influence eye and stem number per seed piece and percent blind (without eyes) in two cultivars, Russet Burbank and Nooksack. The number of eyes may determine stem number per seed piece, which in turn influences tuber set, and eventual yield of a potato cultivar. There was a high correlation coefficient between eye number per seed piece and the number of stems produced in Nooksack. Russet Burbank cultivar averaged twice as many eyes per seed tuber compared to Nooksack tubers of equal size. The eyes on Russet Burbank were also more evenly distributed. The number of eyes and stems produced per seed piece increased as cut seed piece size increased. A correlation coefficient of r = +0.74 was obtained between eye number and stem number on Nooksack. A negative correlation coefficient of r = -0.77 was obtained on Russet Burbank between average stem number of the cut seed and seed tuber size. Percent of cut seed pieces that did not produce a plant (blind) was significantly higher for Nooksack than Russet Burbank, especially with smaller cut seed pieces where the 28 g cut seed had 24% blind seed pieces. Percent blind cut seed pieces also increased as seed tuber size increased. The percent stand was reduced from 94% for seed cut from 84 to 140 g seed tubers to 73% for Nooksack seed pieces cut from seed tubers of 252 to 280 g size. A significant negative linear trend was obtained between total yield that decreased as the seed tuber size from which seed pieces were cut increased.
3.1 Provenance Regions for Pinus caribaea and P. oocarpa in Honduras. (source Robbins and Hughes 1983)
Examination of a sample of seeds in the fruit serves the additional purposes of indicating the state of development or maturity of the seeds (see the following section) and the incidence of damage by pests or diseases.
It permits biosystematic study of genetic variation both within and between populations. McElwee (1969) states that seed collections must be kept separate by individual trees throughout the test from collection to outplanting, as provenance tests are weakened by combining seed within a stand, making it impossible to distinguish between seed source and individual variation. However, in large provenance tests with many individual trees, it may be beyond the resources of the investigator to retain the identity of the parents.
Be composed of a community of potentially interbreeding trees of similar genetic constitution (and of significantly different genetic constitution from other provenances).
The preservation of the identity of individual trees through the collection and extraction phase often requires considerably more effort than bulking the collections. If the effort is made, then certain advantages accrue, as listed by Turnbull (1975b):
The reconnaissance of the size of the seed crop, made 1 – 2 months before seed collection as described on p. 28 will also give some indications as to how the seeds are maturing. Conclusions from it should be twofold e.g.: -“Stands A, B and C: Very light crops, not worth collecting this year. Stands X, Y, Z: Good crops, seeds probably mature in 4 weeks’ time”. A final check on the ripeness of seed must, however, be done at the time of collection.
Recurrent dry-weight determination of a series of seed samples can be made and the results extrapolated to the remaining crop, but this method is slow and therefore seldom used.
Collect equal numbers of cones, fruits or seeds per tree.
In Thailand cone colour is used as a guide to optimum time of collection of pines, but differs according to species. In Pinus kesiya collection starts when cones have hardened and the colour is changing from green to brown in proportions of 50 : 50. In Pinus merkusii optimum time of collection is reached when the majority of cones are brownish and some have started to open (Granhof 1975). Trials with the Zambales (Philippines) provenance of P. merkusii have shown not only that extraction is a much more lengthy and expensive operation with green than with brown cones but also that the seed extracted has lower germination rate (Gordon et al. 1972). Experience with P. caribaea in Honduras is similar (Robbins 1983a).
Fruit crop rating methods.
Periodicity is well documented for many temperate conifers. For example on average Pinus sylvestris bears an abundant crop every 2 – 3 years and Pseudotsuga menziesii every 4 – 6 years in the UK. Since the period between the good crops is not regular, a general rule of collecting three years’ sowing requirements whenever a species bears a heavy cone crop is there recommended by Seal et al. (1965).
Information on planting area and initial spacing is usually available from Plantation Management Plans, while some guidance to germination rates is available in published documents (e.g. FAO 1975a). Whenever possible, local experience on variation between provenances and planting sites should be used to refine estimates based on average conditions. For example, seeds of two provenances of Picea abies weigh, respectively, 6 gm and 12 gm per 1000 (Barner 1981); seed of Eucalyptus cloeziana collected in the moist coastal forests of Queensland averages 100,000 – 400,000/kg, whereas seed from dry inland wood lands averages only 35,000 – 65,000/kg (Turnbull 1983). In Italy it was found that in nursery trials on several eucalypt species the number of plants produced as a percentage of viable seed ranged from 18 % for E. robusta to 46 % for E. camaldulensis (Giordano and Gemignani 1961). Similarly, differences in climate, soil and incidence of pests and diseases can have a big effect on the rate of losses in different nurseries and plantations, whether or not there are any differences in the efficiency of management. So it may be necessary to apply an appropriate “locality correction factor” or “nursery recovery factor” to arrive at an accurate estimate of seed requirements for a particular plantation project. This aspect is discussed further in Chapter 9. Before sending in his final order for seed to a central seed unit or commercial seed merchant, the plantation project manager should deduct those quantities of seed already in stock or likely to be available by collection from older plantations within the project area.
The development of techniques for after-ripening of immature seeds will require more research, before they can be applied to a wide range of species. However, where a problem of rapid dispersal or of seed pests exists and provided the earliest time for safe collection of immature fruits can be established, such techniques can be very beneficial. Some successful examples are mentioned on pp. 90–91.
Seed users need to define the quantity of seed needed of each species, provenance or stand. For this it is necessary to know the area of plantation to be established annually and the initial spacing to be used, together with an estimate of losses and culls in the nursery, of replacements needed after planting to achieve full stocking, and of the number of germinated seedlings to be expected from each kg of seed sown. An example of the type of calculation is shown in Table 3.1.
It is general practice to collect seeds when they are mature, because they have a higher germinative energy and a greater longevity in storage than immature seeds. An alternative method is to collect fruits prior to ripening and to store them in relatively cool, well ventilated conditions which permit afterripening of the seeds within the fruit. It has shown promise on a research scale in a number of species.
Seedlots can be made up and supplied to suit specific sites, making use of the most recent information on genotype/environment interaction from progeny test analyses.
Often it will be necessary to compromise between seed production and phenotypic appearence. No seed should be collected from excessively coarse-branched, vigorous “wolf” trees, even though they often bear a large crop, while trees of exceptionally good form sometimes bear so little seed that they do not warrant the trouble of collection. The bulk of seed will come from trees which are “average or better than average” in both form and seed production.
(3) Involvement of local staff . International expeditions can benefit enormously from the active involvement of local personnel. They can assist in interpretation and their knowledge of local geography and customs can be extremely valuable. They may also be in a position to reconnoitre seed crops in advance of further collections in subsequent years. In return, arrangements may be made for travel expenses of local personnel to be borne by international funds and for the host country to receive a part of the seed collected. Such arrangements should be agreed on both sides in advance.
Although few studies have been made of the reproductive biology of tropical trees, the occurrence of some species at a very low stocking (less than one every km 2 ) suggests that these must be naturally self-pollinated. Seed collection from such trees is free from disadvantages associated with collections from isolated trees of natural cross-pollinators.