essential release seeds

Figure 5 Gathering seeds with a rake.

Figure 6 Spreading a canvas sheet under the tree.

To use this method, you must have skill in climbing trees and using some specialized equipment. This is the method normally used to collect from standing dry zone trees as they are of open form and relatively small. Several methods can be used when collecting seed from standing trees. The roof of a car may serve as a platform.

4.3 Pruning off seed bearing branches.

Sometimes, seed bearing branches will be low enough to allow the collector to bend branches over collection sheets and release the seeds onto the sheet (Figure 9). (Use thick leather gloves when branches are thorny).

Figure 4 Seed collection from natural seed fall.

spread plastic sheets, cloth or canvas under the mother trees so that the seeds will fall onto them.

After selecting and marking good mother trees, several seed collection methods can be used.

Figure 16 Using a ladder for climbing up the tree.

Or, climb into the crown of the tree and use a saw, large knife or similar implement to cut down seed bearing branches (Figures 14 and 15).

The following tools will be helpful:

4.2 Shaking the tree.

For fruit trees:

Rake Sieve Seed container Large canvas, cloth or plastic sheet.

If natural seed fall is spread over a long period of time, manual shaking of the tree is a useful method to get seeds to fall to the ground at the same time. This makes their collection easier. In some cases, however, fruits or pods are strongly attached to the branches and will not drop off easily, even when the tree is shaken. If this is the case, other methods will need to be used, and these will be discussed next.

Follow these steps:

Well-designed portable ladders provide a quick and safe means of reaching the live crowns of trees. Ladders may be made of light wood, metal or bamboo 6–15 metres in length. For small trees a light wooden or aluminium ladder 6–8 metres long is appropriate (Figure 16).

4.5 Climbing trees to collect seed.

A strong 5 millimetre diameter rope about 25 metres in length; A 400 gram stone, or small bag of sand or soil.

Use a rake to gather the seeds and collect them daily.

This is the simplest way to collect seed. It does not require skilled labour. Collection from natural seed fall is suitable for trees with large fruits, pods, and seeds e.g. Tectona , Gmelina and some Dipterocarps .

When the seed is out of reach for hand picking various pole implements may be used for pruning branches.

fold sheets to collect seeds daily. Chances of insect attack and fungal infection which could occur if seeds are left on the ground too long will be minimized.

To use this method you will need:

According to the United Nations, 75 percent of crop diversity has been lost over the past century. Humanity is relying on only six main crops to feed itself.

Currently, Peasants and Indigenous Peoples’ food systems and seed management practices are threatened by industrially produced food, restrictive seed laws, intellectual property claims and gene modification. The expansion of industrial agriculture has come with a dramatic decrease of agricultural biodiversity.

The guide intends to provide tools to support Peasant and Indigenous Peoples’ organizations in their work to advance the full realization of their right to seeds.

“Existing seed laws are made for the seed industry and agribusiness. We participate in the Treaty [ITPGRFA] to reaffirm that our right to seeds is a human rights, which is superior to intellectual property rights.” (Alimata Traoré, President of the Convergence of Rural Women for Food Sovereignty in Mali)

Right to Seeds under threat.

The right to seeds of Peasants and Indigenous Peoples is enshrined in international agreements like the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA), the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) and the UN Declaration on the Rights of Peasants and Other People Working in Rural Areas (UNDROP).

Protecting and elevating rural people’s rights is essential for food sovereignty in a context of climate change, rapid biodiversity loss and pandemics. A new guide sets out an innovative pathway to orient transformative policies at national and international levels.

“This Guide is timely and needed. It contains the authority and wisdom of the people that hold seeds.” (Michael Fakhri, UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food)

Released on the occasion on a new round of discussion in the ITPGRFA, a new guide entitled “Recovering the cycle of wisdom: Beacons of light toward the right to seeds. Guide for the implementation of Farmers’ Rights ” makes concrete proposals in this regard.

Peasants and Indigenous Peoples feed more than 70 percent of the world and are key agents in the preservation of biocultural diversity in food systems. The importance of seeds, traditional knowledge and innovations have been increasingly recognized as crucial factors in efforts to stop the rapid loss of biodiversity, including in the context of developing a new Global Biodiversity Framework under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).

Launch of a new guide on the Right to Seeds.

“Around the world, peasants and Indigenous Peoples take care of their seeds in order to produce food and to take care of ecosystems. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown once more that our seed systems are strong and resilient.” (David Cidi Otieno, Kenyan Peasant League)

At the moment, the challenge remains to implement peasants’ and Indigenous Peoples’ rights in national policies and laws. New efforts are therefore urgently needed.

Restoring biodiversity is critical to adapt agricultural systems to climate change. However, intellectual property rights, which are introduced by organizations like the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) and trade agreements restrict peasants’ and Indigenous Peoples’ rights to save, use, exchange and sell their seeds. New technologies such as Digital Sequence Information (DSI) and genome editing pose new threats to farming communities and risk undermining existing international agreements such as the ITPGRFA and the CBD.

This publication is a joint effort of the Working Group on Agricultural Biodiversity of the International Planning Committee for Food Sovereignty (IPC), FIAN International and Centro Internazionale Crocevia.

During Arabidopsis seed development large quantities of mucilage, composed of pectins, are deposited into the apoplast underneath the outer wall of the seed coat. Upon imbibition of mature seeds, the stored mucilage expands through hydration and breaks the outer cell wall that encapsulates the whole seed. Mutant seeds carrying loss-of-function alleles of AtSBT1.7 that encodes one of 56 Arabidopsis thaliana subtilisin-like serine proteases (subtilases) do not release mucilage upon hydration. Microscopic analysis of the mutant seed coat revealed no visible structural differences compared with wild-type seeds. Weakening of the outer primary wall using cation chelators triggered mucilage release from the seed coats of mutants. However, in contrast to mature wild-type seeds, the mutant’s outer cell walls did not rupture at the radial walls of the seed coat epidermal cells, but instead opened at the chalazal end of the seed, and were released in one piece. In atsbt1.7, the total rhamnose and galacturonic acid contents, representing the backbone of mucilage, remained unchanged compared with wild-type seeds. Thus, extrusion and solubility, but not the initial deposition of mucilage, are affected in atsbt1.7 mutants. AtSBT1.7 is localized in the developing seed coat, indicating a role in testa development or maturation. The altered mode of rupture of the outer seed coat wall and mucilage release indicate that AtSBT1.7 triggers the accumulation, and/or activation, of cell wall modifying enzymes necessary either for the loosening of the outer primary cell wall, or to facilitate swelling of the mucilage, as indicated by elevated pectin methylesterase activity in developing atsbt1.7 mutant seeds.