That age is affirmed by archaeological evidence, which includes traces of ancient cannabis seeds found in pottery from that time in southern China, Taiwan and Japan.
The different types of cannabis would have started to diverge from the basal type sometime after it was domesticated, and the study showed the hemp type became prominent about 4,000 years ago, presumably as people started to select plants for fiber production, he said.
Within the plant, both CBDA and THCA are produced by and compete for the same raw material, cannabigerolic acid or CBGA. Scientists think that both groups of genes probably play a major role in the plant’s defenses. Even so, the genes have produced very different effects on the cultivation of each type of plant, with the hemp-type favoring the production of the CBDA genetic assembly and the drug-type favoring the THCA genetic assembly, the researchers wrote.
Fumagalli said the genetic study led the researchers to conclude that all cannabis plants alive today are descended from plants that were domesticated in the original region, and that the wild progenitors of Cannabis sativa are probably now extinct.
Most biologists now think two different species of cannabis — Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis — are subspecies of the single species within the genus, Cannabis sativa, that was domesticated earlier than about 12,000 years ago.
The study was published Friday (July 16) in the journal Science Advances .
They noted that cannabis has long been seen as an important source of fiber for textiles as well as a source of medicinal and recreational drugs but that the history of its domestication has been difficult to determine — because of both legal restrictions and clandestine breeding for drugs.
Originally published on Live Science.
The researchers identified a “basal type” of cannabis plant from northwest China that was previously unknown, Luca Fumagalli, a geneticist at the University of Lausanne in Switzerland, told Live Science.
Most prominently, the four types of cannabis differ in the assemblies of genes that control their production of two particular acidic cannabinoids — CBDA, which produces the chemical CBD and is prominent in the hemp-type variety, and THCA, which produces the more psychoactive chemical THC .
Marijuana users have had many occasions to wonder where their much-beloved — yet much maligned — cannabis plant came from. They need wonder no more: New genetic research reveals that the pot plant has its roots in what is now northwest China, where local strains are most like the original strain of cannabis cultivated more than 12,000 years ago.
Instead, the study showed that cannabis plants from Central Asia belonged to the ” hemp type,” he said, meaning they are tall, unbranching plants with cellulose-rich stems suitable for producing fibers for ropes and textiles. They weren’t the so-called basal type, which are suitable for both fiber production and producing psychoactive effects.
The new genetic research is intended to serve as a resource for medical and agricultural research into cannabis . “East Asia has been shown to be an important ancient hotspot of domestication for several crop species, including rice, broomcorn and foxtail millet, soybean, foxnut, apricot and peach. … Our results thus add another line of evidence for the importance of this domestication hotspot.”
Because cannabis plants are so widespread now, there’s been considerable scientific debate about where it originated, and suggestions have included West Asia, Central Asia and northern China, Fumagalli said.
Hemp-type strains of cannabis now grow in the wild throughout Europe, Central Asia and some parts of northern China. The strains of cannabis now grown commercially for drugs are exclusively from the drug-type, which were selected for the higher levels of psychoactive chemicals they produced; and feral drug-type strains now grow in the wild throughout South and Southeast Asia, where cannabis seems to have been cultivated over the past few thousand years, mainly for marijuana’s psychoactive effects , he said.
The study — the largest ever of the whole genomes of cannabis plants, adding a further 82 genomes to the 28 that had already been sequenced — shows that cannabis was probably first domesticated in early Neolithic times in the region of modern China near its borders with Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, and from there spread as different varieties around the world.
“People thought the region was more towards Central Asia, mostly because there were a lot of feral [wild] cannabis plants along the roads there,” he said. “But this observational data basically contradicted what we got from the genomic analysis.”
That is now starting to change, however. “Our study provides new insight into [the] global spread of a plant with divergent structural and biochemical products, at a time in which there is a resurgence of interest in its use, reflecting changing social attitudes and corresponding challenges to its legal status in many countries,” the researchers wrote.
Tom Metcalfe is a journalist based in London who writes mainly about science, space, archaeology, the earth, and the oceans. He’s written for the BBC, NBC News, Live Science, National Geographic, Scientific American, Air & Space, and others.
ACE Seeds recommends to keep the temperatures up to 25ºC in the vegetative stage and first month of blooming, then around 20°C for the last month, in order to give this Chinese landrace the perfect conditions to fully bloom. Outdoors, China Yunnan enjoys warm and dry climates , thus offering, for example, very good results in southern Spain.
China Yunnan from ACE Seeds is a mostly indica cannabis strain coming from south China , producing very resinous buds with complex aroma and a positive, relaxing effect. Get it now at Alchimia Grow Shop.
This pure strain is perfect to make homemade cannabis hybrids , to reduce sativa’s flowering time, increase its yield and get some sweet and woody tones to organoleptic profile.
China Yunnan adapts very well to indoor cannabis growing , developing a unique main cola when the vegetative period is short. Grown outdoors; it produces branches more easily, but being compact thanks to its short internodal distance.
According to ACE Seeds, the China Yunnan cannabis variety could come from the meeting of classic indica lines and south indian sativas, from which we will notice a characteristic woody smell and a happy high effect . Its columnar structure, – ideal for Sea of Green growing techniques – its large leaves and relaxing effect are all reminiscent of the hashish plants from the Indica family.
China Yunnan will present creamy and sweet aroma with some exotic wood scents. Effect will be relaxing , warm and positive.
No. As discussed, adult recreational use and medical use is still highly regulated, which means no retail sales of cannabis products in this regard.
China Bast and Leaf Fibers Textile Association.
No special rules or limitations except that, in Yunnan Province, technology transfer by companies licensed to process flower or leaf of industrial cannabis shall be reported to the competent public security authority on a semi-annual basis.
We are representing a foreign client to set up two joint ventures in China partnered with a qualified Chinese company to engage in industrial cannabis covering full industry chain, including import and cultivation of hemp seeds, planting of hemp, extraction of CBD and research and development of CBD application (initially in cosmetics which is the only legitimate CBD application so far in China).
Any person who smuggles, trades, transports, carries, produces or illegally possesses marijuana may be criminally punished. Depending on the quantities, the depending on the quantity, the punishment could range from fixed term imprisonment (or criminal detention or public surveillance) of no more than 3 years to life imprisonment, in addition to fines.
Yes, enforcement does vary with different product types, generally, higher concentration of THC, stricter the enforcement. But it also varies with regions.
Given the various legal impediments in this industry, there are few law firms specializing in this practice. However, our law firm, as one of the largest full-service law firms, has relevant professional teams focusing on government regulations and business development of cannabis. We are of the view that industrial cannabis is still in the start-up stage in China with enormous potential and we are very much delighted to take a part in this promising business sector.
Despite high medical value, CBD has not yet been approved to be added as a major active ingredient into medicine in China. Though CBD/THC is recognized in China as major active ingredient of psychotropic substances, currently in Chinese market, no CBD/THC psychotropic substances have been approved to be produced or used.
1. Identify the geographic scope and limits of your answers to the questions below.
V. Special requirements.
World Law Group member firms recently collaborated on a Global Cannabis Guide that provides a brief overview of laws and policies regarding the use of cannabis in various jurisdictions. It briefly outlines information on the most important legal issues, from relevant legislation and general information to special requirements and risks.
Depending on the concentrations of THC.
12. Are there patient registration or cardholder requirements?
5. What cannabis functions are allowed in your jurisdiction? E.g., growing, processing, retailing?
IV. Patients and prescriptions.
B. Is there any proposed legislation that could materially alter applicable statutes or regulations?
Yes. In Yunnan Province, entities engaged in planting or processing of industrial cannabis shall be equipped with a sound recording system to keep relevant information (including source, storage, disposition, sale, etc.) on record for at least three years. While in Heilongjiang Province, entities engaged in planting or processing of industrial cannabis shall report to local PSB at county level within 10 working days following any planting, processing or selling activities with respect to the source, purposes, quantities, sales, etc.
B. If so, briefly describe the differences.
13. Does your jurisdiction require any recordkeeping from seed planting to the time of end user sale? For all cannabis products?
Local Public Security Bureau (“PSB”) at county level is in charge of 1) issuing the license to plant industrial cannabis for purpose of industrial raw material provision; 2) issuing the license to process the flower and leaf of industrial cannabis; and 3) record filing of industrial cannabis planting for gardening or folk custom purposes.